关于“测试左移”&“测试右移”

作者新建了QQ群:460430320,供大家交流测试心得(培训机构勿进)。另外,还会不定期上传测试资料,也欢迎您共享测试资料。

之前写过该话题的博客,但最近在看一些大佬聊天的时候,感觉get到了一些新的思路,拿过来,分享给大家。
1、测试左移、右移,可以针对测试团队来说,左移就是尽早的参与项目,从需求阶段就开始参与评审,站在测试角度提出意见或建议;右移就是项目上线成功后,还要做一些测试能做的工作,比如线上的监控等;测试左移和右移强调的是测试工作的全流程参与,相当于全程软件测试,全过程质量控制,把固有的瀑布式对测试所产生的误解进行纠正,使测试的工作内容得到扩展,测试的参与角色也得到扩展。

2、测试左移、右移,可以针对项目团队来说,左移是指从更高的层面,比如项目组、甚至公司层面,建立制度规则,通过固化流程或者应用系统、工具,将测试(质量)的概念或思维提前,全民参与;

3、右移可做的事情非常多。比如:AB测试,灰度,蓝绿,监控。有些测试工作在线下不好做,但在线上可做,包括全链路压测。

4、右移还可关注高可用,故障自愈、可扩展和弹性设计、可监控与遥测设计。——感觉是运维的工作。

5、推荐一篇文章:https://testerhome.com/topics/23727

已标记关键词 清除标记
希望 有耐心的大牛给解惑 _____________________________________________________ public class DiskBasedCache implements Cache { /** Map of the Key, CacheHeader pairs */ private final Map<String, CacheHeader> mEntries = new LinkedHashMap<String, CacheHeader>(16, .75f, true); /** Total amount of space currently used by the cache in bytes. */ private long mTotalSize = 0; /** The root directory to use for the cache. */ private final File mRootDirectory; /** The maximum size of the cache in bytes. */ private final int mMaxCacheSizeInBytes; /** Default maximum disk usage in bytes. */ private static final int DEFAULT_DISK_USAGE_BYTES = 5 * 1024 * 1024; /** High water mark percentage for the cache */ private static final float HYSTERESIS_FACTOR = 0.9f; /** Magic number for current version of cache file format. */ private static final int CACHE_MAGIC = 0x20120504; /** * Constructs an instance of the DiskBasedCache at the specified directory. * @param rootDirectory The root directory of the cache. * @param maxCacheSizeInBytes The maximum size of the cache in bytes. */ public DiskBasedCache(File rootDirectory, int maxCacheSizeInBytes) { mRootDirectory = rootDirectory; mMaxCacheSizeInBytes = maxCacheSizeInBytes; } /** * Constructs an instance of the DiskBasedCache at the specified directory using * the default maximum cache size of 5MB. * @param rootDirectory The root directory of the cache. */ public DiskBasedCache(File rootDirectory) { this(rootDirectory, DEFAULT_DISK_USAGE_BYTES); } /** * Clears the cache. Deletes all cached files from disk. */ @Override public synchronized void clear() { File[] files = mRootDirectory.listFiles(); if (files != null) { for (File file : files) { file.delete(); } } mEntries.clear(); mTotalSize = 0; VolleyLog.d("Cache cleared."); } /** * Returns the cache entry with the specified key if it exists, null otherwise. */ @Override public synchronized Entry get(String key) { CacheHeader entry = mEntries.get(key); // if the entry does not exist, return. if (entry == null) { return null; } File file = getFileForKey(key); CountingInputStream cis = null; try { cis = new CountingInputStream(new FileInputStream(file)); CacheHeader.readHeader(cis); // eat header byte[] data = streamToBytes(cis, (int) (file.length() - cis.bytesRead)); return entry.toCacheEntry(data); } catch (IOException e) { VolleyLog.d("%s: %s", file.getAbsolutePath(), e.toString()); remove(key); return null; } finally { if (cis != null) { try { cis.close(); } catch (IOException ioe) { return null; } } } } /** * Initializes the DiskBasedCache by scanning for all files currently in the * specified root directory. Creates the root directory if necessary. */ @Override public synchronized void initialize() { if (!mRootDirectory.exists()) { if (!mRootDirectory.mkdirs()) { VolleyLog.e("Unable to create cache dir %s", mRootDirectory.getAbsolutePath()); } return; } File[] files = mRootDirectory.listFiles(); if (files == null) { return; } for (File file : files) { FileInputStream fis = null; try { fis = new FileInputStream(file); CacheHeader entry = CacheHeader.readHeader(fis); entry.size = file.length(); putEntry(entry.key, entry); } catch (IOException e) { if (file != null) { file.delete(); } } finally { try { if (fis != null) { fis.close(); } } catch (IOException ignored) { } } } } /** * Invalidates an entry in the cache. * @param key Cache key * @param fullExpire True to fully expire the entry, false to soft expire */ @Override public synchronized void invalidate(String key, boolean fullExpire) { Entry entry = get(key); if (entry != null) { entry.softTtl = 0; if (fullExpire) { entry.ttl = 0; } put(key, entry); } } /** * Puts the entry with the specified key into the cache. */ @Override public synchronized void put(String key, Entry entry) { pruneIfNeeded(entry.data.length); File file = getFileForKey(key); try { FileOutputStream fos = new FileOutputStream(file); CacheHeader e = new CacheHeader(key, entry); e.writeHeader(fos); fos.write(entry.data); fos.close(); putEntry(key, e); return; } catch (IOException e) { } boolean deleted = file.delete(); if (!deleted) { VolleyLog.d("Could not clean up file %s", file.getAbsolutePath()); } } /** * Removes the specified key from the cache if it exists. */ @Override public synchronized void remove(String key) { boolean deleted = getFileForKey(key).delete(); removeEntry(key); if (!deleted) { VolleyLog.d("Could not delete cache entry for key=%s, filename=%s", key, getFilenameForKey(key)); } } /** * Creates a pseudo-unique filename for the specified cache key. * @param key The key to generate a file name for. * @return A pseudo-unique filename. */ private String getFilenameForKey(String key) { int firstHalfLength = key.length() / 2; String localFilename = String.valueOf(key.substring(0, firstHalfLength).hashCode()); localFilename += String.valueOf(key.substring(firstHalfLength).hashCode()); return localFilename; } /** * Returns a file object for the given cache key. */ public File getFileForKey(String key) { return new File(mRootDirectory, getFilenameForKey(key)); } /** * Prunes the cache to fit the amount of bytes specified. * @param neededSpace The amount of bytes we are trying to fit into the cache. */ private void pruneIfNeeded(int neededSpace) { if ((mTotalSize + neededSpace) < mMaxCacheSizeInBytes) { return; } if (VolleyLog.DEBUG) { VolleyLog.v("Pruning old cache entries."); } long before = mTotalSize; int prunedFiles = 0; long startTime = SystemClock.elapsedRealtime(); Iterator<Map.Entry<String, CacheHeader>> iterator = mEntries.entrySet().iterator(); while (iterator.hasNext()) { Map.Entry<String, CacheHeader> entry = iterator.next(); CacheHeader e = entry.getValue(); boolean deleted = getFileForKey(e.key).delete(); if (deleted) { mTotalSize -= e.size; } else { VolleyLog.d("Could not delete cache entry for key=%s, filename=%s", e.key, getFilenameForKey(e.key)); } iterator.remove(); prunedFiles++; if ((mTotalSize + neededSpace) < mMaxCacheSizeInBytes * HYSTERESIS_FACTOR) { break; } } if (VolleyLog.DEBUG) { VolleyLog.v("pruned %d files, %d bytes, %d ms", prunedFiles, (mTotalSize - before), SystemClock.elapsedRealtime() - startTime); } } /** * Puts the entry with the specified key into the cache. * @param key The key to identify the entry by. * @param entry The entry to cache. */ private void putEntry(String key, CacheHeader entry) { if (!mEntries.containsKey(key)) { mTotalSize += entry.size; } else { CacheHeader oldEntry = mEntries.get(key); mTotalSize += (entry.size - oldEntry.size); } mEntries.put(key, entry); } /** * Removes the entry identified by 'key' from the cache. */ private void removeEntry(String key) { CacheHeader entry = mEntries.get(key); if (entry != null) { mTotalSize -= entry.size; mEntries.remove(key); } } /** * Reads the contents of an InputStream into a byte[]. * */ private static byte[] streamToBytes(InputStream in, int length) throws IOException { byte[] bytes = new byte[length]; int count; int pos = 0; while (pos < length && ((count = in.read(bytes, pos, length - pos)) != -1)) { pos += count; } if (pos != length) { throw new IOException("Expected " + length + " bytes, read " + pos + " bytes"); } return bytes; } /** * Handles holding onto the cache headers for an entry. */ // Visible for testing. static class CacheHeader { /** The size of the data identified by this CacheHeader. (This is not * serialized to disk. */ public long size; /** The key that identifies the cache entry. */ public String key; /** ETag for cache coherence. */ public String etag; /** Date of this response as reported by the server. */ public long serverDate; /** TTL for this record. */ public long ttl; /** Soft TTL for this record. */ public long softTtl; /** Headers from the response resulting in this cache entry. */ public Map<String, String> responseHeaders; private CacheHeader() { } /** * Instantiates a new CacheHeader object * @param key The key that identifies the cache entry * @param entry The cache entry. */ public CacheHeader(String key, Entry entry) { this.key = key; this.size = entry.data.length; this.etag = entry.etag; this.serverDate = entry.serverDate; this.ttl = entry.ttl; this.softTtl = entry.softTtl; this.responseHeaders = entry.responseHeaders; } /** * Reads the header off of an InputStream and returns a CacheHeader object. * @param is The InputStream to read from. * @throws IOException */ public static CacheHeader readHeader(InputStream is) throws IOException { CacheHeader entry = new CacheHeader(); int magic = readInt(is); if (magic != CACHE_MAGIC) { // don't bother deleting, it'll get pruned eventually throw new IOException(); } entry.key = readString(is); entry.etag = readString(is); if (entry.etag.equals("")) { entry.etag = null; } entry.serverDate = readLong(is); entry.ttl = readLong(is); entry.softTtl = readLong(is); entry.responseHeaders = readStringStringMap(is); return entry; } /** * Creates a cache entry for the specified data. */ public Entry toCacheEntry(byte[] data) { Entry e = new Entry(); e.data = data; e.etag = etag; e.serverDate = serverDate; e.ttl = ttl; e.softTtl = softTtl; e.responseHeaders = responseHeaders; return e; } /** * Writes the contents of this CacheHeader to the specified OutputStream. */ public boolean writeHeader(OutputStream os) { try { writeInt(os, CACHE_MAGIC); writeString(os, key); writeString(os, etag == null ? "" : etag); writeLong(os, serverDate); writeLong(os, ttl); writeLong(os, softTtl); writeStringStringMap(responseHeaders, os); os.flush(); return true; } catch (IOException e) { VolleyLog.d("%s", e.toString()); return false; } } } private static class CountingInputStream extends FilterInputStream { private int bytesRead = 0; private CountingInputStream(InputStream in) { super(in); } @Override public int read() throws IOException { int result = super.read(); if (result != -1) { bytesRead++; } return result; } @Override public int read(byte[] buffer, int offset, int count) throws IOException { int result = super.read(buffer, offset, count); if (result != -1) { bytesRead += result; } return result; } } /* * Homebrewed simple serialization system used for reading and writing cache * headers on disk. Once upon a time, this used the standard Java * Object{Input,Output}Stream, but the default implementation relies heavily * on reflection (even for standard types) and generates a ton of garbage. */ /** * Simple wrapper around {@link InputStream#read()} that throws EOFException * instead of returning -1. */ private static int read(InputStream is) throws IOException { int b = is.read(); if (b == -1) { throw new EOFException(); } return b; } static void writeInt(OutputStream os, int n) throws IOException { os.write((n >> 0) & 0xff); os.write((n >> 8) & 0xff); os.write((n >> 16) & 0xff); os.write((n >> 24) & 0xff); } static int readInt(InputStream is) throws IOException { int n = 0; n |= (read(is) << 0); n |= (read(is) << 8); n |= (read(is) << 16); n |= (read(is) << 24); return n; } static void writeLong(OutputStream os, long n) throws IOException { os.write((byte)(n >>> 0)); os.write((byte)(n >>> 8)); os.write((byte)(n >>> 16)); os.write((byte)(n >>> 24)); os.write((byte)(n >>> 32)); os.write((byte)(n >>> 40)); os.write((byte)(n >>> 48)); os.write((byte)(n >>> 56)); } static long readLong(InputStream is) throws IOException { long n = 0; n |= ((read(is) & 0xFFL) << 0); n |= ((read(is) & 0xFFL) << 8); n |= ((read(is) & 0xFFL) << 16); n |= ((read(is) & 0xFFL) << 24); n |= ((read(is) & 0xFFL) << 32); n |= ((read(is) & 0xFFL) << 40); n |= ((read(is) & 0xFFL) << 48); n |= ((read(is) & 0xFFL) << 56); return n; } static void writeString(OutputStream os, String s) throws IOException { byte[] b = s.getBytes("UTF-8"); writeLong(os, b.length); os.write(b, 0, b.length); } static String readString(InputStream is) throws IOException { int n = (int) readLong(is); byte[] b = streamToBytes(is, n); return new String(b, "UTF-8"); } static void writeStringStringMap(Map<String, String> map, OutputStream os) throws IOException { if (map != null) { writeInt(os, map.size()); for (Map.Entry<String, String> entry : map.entrySet()) { writeString(os, entry.getKey()); writeString(os, entry.getValue()); } } else { writeInt(os, 0); } } static Map<String, String> readStringStringMap(InputStream is) throws IOException { int size = readInt(is); Map<String, String> result = (size == 0) ? Collections.<String, String>emptyMap() : new HashMap<String, String>(size); for (int i = 0; i < size; i++) { String key = readString(is).intern(); String value = readString(is).intern(); result.put(key, value); } return result; } 这里面有几个方法的作用我不太理解,希望有大牛可以给解释一下,谢谢。 不明的方法是 static void writeInt(OutputStream os, int n) throws IOException { os.write((n >> 0) & 0xff); os.write((n >> 8) & 0xff); os.write((n >> 16) & 0xff); os.write((n >> 24) & 0xff); } static int readInt(InputStream is) throws IOException { int n = 0; n |= (read(is) << 0); n |= (read(is) << 8); n |= (read(is) << 16); n |= (read(is) << 24); return n; } static void writeLong(OutputStream os, long n) throws IOException { os.write((byte)(n >>> 0)); os.write((byte)(n >>> 8)); os.write((byte)(n >>> 16)); os.write((byte)(n >>> 24)); os.write((byte)(n >>> 32)); os.write((byte)(n >>> 40)); os.write((byte)(n >>> 48)); os.write((byte)(n >>> 56)); } static long readLong(InputStream is) throws IOException { long n = 0; n |= ((read(is) & 0xFFL) << 0); n |= ((read(is) & 0xFFL) << 8); n |= ((read(is) & 0xFFL) << 16); n |= ((read(is) & 0xFFL) << 24); n |= ((read(is) & 0xFFL) << 32); n |= ((read(is) & 0xFFL) << 40); n |= ((read(is) & 0xFFL) << 48); n |= ((read(is) & 0xFFL) << 56); return n; } 我不明白为什么需要作与或操作,为什么要左移右移,这是定好的计算方式???
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